Breast Reconstruction

If you are one of the thousands of women who have one or both breasts removed for a cancer-related condition, you will want to consider breast reconstruction surgery.

The decision of whether to undergo breast reconstruction is extremely personal. Most women cannot imagine not getting breast reconstruction. Some women prefer to put on a prosthesis while others may choose not to. And still others may go for quite a while without breast reconstruction and then come to a decision to get the reconstruction.


Pillar Procedure (Snoring Treatment)

Pillar Procedure

Please refer to an educational 3D animation with an easy, visual demonstration of the reasons behind snoring and obstructive sleep apnea. The animation below makes it clear to understand how the positioning of three little implants helps fix the palatal vibration and collapse which causes snoring and obstructive sleep apnea.

Video here.

Link to video:


Pillar Procedure (Snoring Treatment)

Causes of Obstructive Sleep Apnea

Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) takes place every time the muscles in the back of your throat relax. These muscles provide support to the soft palate, the triangular piece of tissue hanging from the soft palate (uvula), the tonsils, the side walls of the throat and the tongue.

When these muscles relax, your airway narrows or shuts down while you inhale, so you can’t get a sufficient breath in.


Pillar Procedure (Snoring Treatment)

Signs and Symptoms

The most common signs and symptoms of obstructive and central sleep apneas include:

  • Too much sleepiness during the day.
  • Loud snoring that is generally more prominent in obstructive sleep apnea.
  • Periods of breathing cessation while sleeping observed by somebody else.
  • Sudden awakenings combined with shortness of breath, which likely suggests central sleep apnea.
  • Awakening with a dry mouth or sore throat.
  • Morning headache
  • Insomnia (difficulty staying asleep)
  • Attention problems


Recovery and Discharge

You may have a feeling of fatigue or may have difficulty with memory 2 to 3 days after the surgery. This is due to the after effects of anesthesia and pain medications.

During this time, you should not drive, drink alcohol, or make big decision.


Once you wake up from the anesthesia you should be able to drink small amounts of fluid. The moment you do not feel sick, you can start eating regular foods.

Keep drinking about 8 to 10 glasses of water per day.



The Day of Your Surgery

  • No food or drink for at least 6 hours before the operation.
  • Shower and clean your abdomen and groin area with a mild antibacterial soap.
  • Brush your teeth and rinse your mouth out with mouthwash.
  • Do not shave the surgical site; your surgical team will clip the hair nearest the incision site.

During the Surgery

Most of the time your surgeon will perform the procedure while you are asleep under general anesthesia.

Typically, a cholecystectomy follows the process described below:



Preparing for the Surgery

Medications & Other Conditions

Provide a list of medicines and vitamins that you are taking like aspirin or NSAIDS to the surgical team. Some medicines can affect your recovery and response to anesthesia and might need to be adjusted before and after surgery.



Risks and Complications

The same as any surgical procedure, complications could happen. A few potential complications of cholecystectomy can include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Bleeding
  • Infection
  • Bile duct injure – the tube that transport bile from the gallbladder to the small intestine.

During the course of laparoscopic cholecystectomy, insertion of the instruments into the abdomen could cause an injury to the intestines or blood vessels.



Treatment Procedures

Your surgeon may perform cholecystectomy if your bladder contains gallstones (cholelithiasis), is inflamed or infected (cholecystitis) or is cancerous.

There are two ways to remove the gallbladder.

One method uses a big incision (6 inches approximately) in the upper right-hand side of the abdomen. Your surgeon then cuts through the fat and muscle and locates the gallbladder for removal. This method is called open cholecystectomy.



The Gallbladder

The gallbladder is a small pear-shaped organ situated under the liver. The liver makes about three to five cups of bile every day. Please refer to the figure below.

Gallbladder and Cholecystectomy

Bile helps in the digestion of fats and is stored in the gallbladder.

When fatty foods are eaten, the gallbladder squeezes bile out through the bile duct and into the small intestine.



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